Tahiru Saka
Aadil Khursheed
Abdulhalim Musa Abubakar
Gaurav Kumar Pandit
Peter Simon
Mamoudou Hamoudou


Neem based materials are abundant in almost every part of the world. It is allowed to litter the environment and eventually swept and disposed. In this study, neem oil was extracted from neem seeds kernel and its characterization was done by proximate analysis to determine the physico-chemical properties of the oil extracted. From the experiment, the moisture content, oil content, saponification (SAP) value, color and nature at room temperature of the grinded neem seed are 11.4%, 48.4%, 171 mg KOH, golden yellow and liquid, respectively. The primary objective of this work is to formulate an insecticide phytocoil from neem materials. The formulated insecticide phytocoil from both oil and neem leaves can be used as substitute to synthetic insecticides. Examining the repelling ability of the phytocoil confirms its ability to deter mosquitoes for up to 4 hrs in a small toilet room. Packaging as well as the improvement of the methodology of its mass production is suggested to enhance its looks and shape it to acceptable standard


How to Cite
Saka, T., Khursheed, A., Abubakar, A. M., Pandit, G. K., Simon, P., & Hamoudou, M. (2023). Insecticide phytocoil production from neem based materials and characterization of neem oil extract. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 12(1), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.35335/ijobas.v12i1.251
M. A. Hossain, W. A. S. Al-Toubi, A. M. Weli, Q. A. Al-Riyami, and J. N. Al-Sabahi, “Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem,” J. Taibah Univ. Sci., pp. 1–8, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jtusci.2013.05.003.
B. Hamadou et al., “Influence of physicochemical characteristics of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on biodiesel production,” Biomolecules, vol. 10, no. 616, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.3390/biom10040616.
K. O. Boadu, S. K. Tulashie, M. A. Anang, and J. D. Kpan, “Production of natural insecticide from neem leaves (Azadirachta indica),” Asian J. Plant Sci. Res., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 33–38, 2011, [Online]. Available: www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com.
S. R. Shrirangasami, R. Murugaragavan, S. S. Rakesh, and P. T. Ramesh, “Chemistry behind in neem (Azadirachta indica) as medicinal value to living forms-A review,” J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 467–469, 2020, doi: 10.22271/phyto.2020.v9.i6g.12936.
S. D. Y. Naqvi, A. Haile, and D. Brhane, “Extraction and characterization of oil and cake from neem seed kernels collected from Hamelmalo Region,” Am. J. Agric. Res., vol. 5, no. 91, pp. 1–11, 2020, [Online]. Available: https://escipub.com/american-journal-of-agricultural-research/.
R. P. Giri, A. K. Gangawane, and S. G. Giri, “Neem the wonder herb: A short review,” Int. J. Trend Sci. Res. Dev., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 962–967, 2019.
C. T. Onyema et al., “Phytocoil production from the leaves of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Hyptis suaveolens (bush mint),” Am. Assoc. Sci. Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://www.aascit.org/journal/chemistry.
E. V. R. Campos, J. L. de Oliveira, M. Pascoli, R. de Lima, and L. F. Fraceto, “Neem oil and crop protection: From now to the future,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 7, no. 1494, pp. 1–8, 2016, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01494.
G. Esparza-Díaz, J. A. Villanueva-Jiménez, J. López-Collado, and F. Osorio-Acosta, “Multi-insecticide extractive technology of neem seeds for small growers,” Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosystems, vol. 13, pp. 409–415, 2011, [Online]. Available: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=93920942018.
M. B. Isman, “Bioinsecticides based on plant essential oils: A short overview,” De Gruyter, vol. 75, no. (7-8)c, pp. 179–182, 2020, doi: 10.1515/znc-2020-0038.
C. Bond, K. Buhl, and D. Stone, “Neem oil general fact sheet,” National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University (OSU) Extension Services, 2012. http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/neemgen.html (accessed Jul. 30, 2023).
R. Kant and R. M. Bhatt, “Field evaluation of mosquito repellent action of neem oil,” Indian J. Malariol., vol. 31, pp. 122–125, 1994, [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15486452.
V. V. Oberemok, K. V. Laikova, Y. I. Gninenko, A. S. Zaitsev, P. M. Nyadar, and T. A. Adeyemi, “A short history of insecticides,” J. Plant Prot. Res., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 221–226, 2015, doi: 10.1515/jppr-2015-0033.
A. L. Souto, M. Sylvestre, E. D. Tolke, J. F. Tavares, J. M. Barbosa-Filho, and G. Cebrian-Torrejon, “Plant-derived pesticides as an alternative to pest management and sustainable agricultural production: Prospects, applications and challenges,” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 4835, pp. 1–34, 2021, doi: 10.3390/molecules26164835.
K. A. Assifuah-Hasford, Z. A. Imoro, and J. S. Cobbina, “Synthesis of insecticides from selected plant materials,” J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 362–367, 2018, doi: 10.4314/jasem.v22i3.12.
K. B. Hundie, D. A. Akuma, and A. B. Bayu, “Extraction, optimization, and characterization of neem seed oil via Box-Behnken design approach,” J. Turkish Chem. Soc., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 513–526, 2022, doi: 10.18596/jotcsa.1039997.
A. G. Taiwo, T. O. Ijaola, S. O. Lawal, and Y. A. Lanrelyanda, “Characterization of neem seed oil and its biodiesel (B100),” NIPES J. Sci. Technol. Res., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 178–187, 2020, doi: 10.37933/nipes/2.2.2020.18.
B. O. Evbuomwan, I. Felix-Achor, and C. C. Opute, “Extraction and characterization of oil from neem seeds, leaves and barks,” Eur. Int. J. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1–7, 2015, [Online]. Available: www.eijst.org.uk.
F. Ezeonu, G. I. Chidume, and S. C. Udedi, “Insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 273–284, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00120-6.
S. Mursiti, N. A. Lestari, Z. Febriana, Y. M. Rosanti, and T. W. Ningsih, “The activity of d-limonene from sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis L.) extract as a natural insecticide controller of bedbugs (Cimex cimicidae),” Orient. J. Chem., vol. 35, no. 4, 2019, doi: 10.13005/ojc/350424.
G. G. Lokhande and N. R. Chapaitkar, “Production of mosquito repellent insecticide coil using orange peel,” Int. J. Sci. Dev. Res., pp. 1224–1227, 2022, [Online]. Available: www.ijsdr.org.
R. O. Uddin II and S. A. Sanusi, “Efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp),” Agrosearch, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 67–72, 2013, doi: 10.4314/agrosh.v13i2.8.
D. Diptaningsari, D. Meithasari, H. Karyati, and N. Wardani, “Potential use of coconut shell liquid smoke as an insecticide on soybean and the impact on agronomic performance,” 4th Int. Conf. Sustain. Agric. (ICoSA 2021), IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. [25/08/2021 - 26/08/2021 Yogyakarta], vol. 985, no. 012058, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/985/1/012058.
E. R. Gever and B. C. Echezona, “The insecticidal activity of neem and palm kernel oils on bean weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) infestations of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp),” J. Food Process. Preserv., vol. 2023, no. 5536943, pp. 1–9, 2023, doi: 10.1155/2023/5536943.
E. Abiy, T. Gebre-Michael, M. Balkew, and G. Medhin, “Repellent efficacy of DEET, MyggA, neem (Azedirachta indica) oil and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) oil againts Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector in Ethiopia,” Malar. J., vol. 14, no. 187, pp. 1–6, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0705-4.

Author Biographies

Tahiru Saka, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Aadil Khursheed, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal, India



Gaurav Kumar Pandit, Patna University, Patna, India



Peter Simon, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Mamoudou Hamoudou, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon