Ardina Ardina
Darma Bakti
Maryani Cyccu L. Tobing
Rosichon Ubaidillah
Darmawan Darmawan


Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is one of the pests that attacks maize. There are many ways to control this pest problem one of which is to use  insecticides. However, biological control this pest with nature conservation based on the concept of integrated pest control. Refugia plants offer pest control properties based on the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) concept by providing food for parasitoids as the natural enemies. This study aimed to know capacity parasitism of egg parasitoid S. frugiperda in refugia system. This research uses non-factorial randomized group design (RGD) study, the number of S. frugiperda egg parasitoids on maize fields with refugia plants around it was counted.  There were 5 treatments with 5 replications applied in this study: Control/without refugia, maize plants with red refugia (Zinnia elegans), maize plants with yellow refugia (Melanpodium paludosumi), maize plants with white refugia (Turnera subulata), maize plants with red refugia, yellow and white. This study found two species of S. frugiperda egg parasitoids namely Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Telenomus dignus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in the field. The overall rate of parasitism egg S. frugiperda was no significant effect. The treatment of maize plants with white and mixed-colour refugia (red, yellow, white) showed the highest egg parasitization at 15 days after planting (DAP). Meanwhile, the dominance of Telenomus remus Nixon parasitoid was at an average of 0.202% and the lowest dominance of Telenomus dignus at 0.030%.


How to Cite
Ardina, A., Bakti, D., Tobing, M. C. L., Ubaidillah, R., & Darmawan, D. (2024). Parasitism capacity of telenomus sp. (hymenoptera: scelionidae) on spodoptera frugiperda, in refugia system. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 12(4), 183–193. https://doi.org/10.35335/ijobas.v12i4.327
Kementan, “Introduction of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) new pest of corn in Indonesia).” Indonesia, p. http;//cybex.pertanian.go.id, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://cybex.pertanian.go.id.
CABI, “Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm).http://www.cabi.org/ISC/fallarmyworm.” united kingdom, p. http://www.cabi.org/ISC/fallarmyworm, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://www.cabi.org/ISC/fallarmyworm
I. Rwomushana et al., “Fall armyworm: impacts and implications for Africa.” [Online]. Available: https://www.invasivespesies.org/wpcontent/uploads/sites/2/2019.
S. md, A. DFB, K. A, C. DSS, MOJN, and M. CNDO, “Biology and nutrition of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) fed on different food sources,” Sci. Agric., vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 18–31, 2017, doi: 10.1590/1678-992x-2015-0160.
J. Jadish, L. Kumar, and M. K. Yogi, “Habitat manipulation for biological control of insect pests: A review,” Dep. Entomol. GBPUAT, India. Res J. Agric. For. Sci, vol. 10):27-31.
A. Jacometti, A. Marco, M. Josson, J. M. Thopson, O. Sofia, and D. Stephen, “Provision of floral resources for biological control restoring and important ecosystem service,” Funct. Ecosys Comm, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 86–94.
Y. M. Liu et al., “Tamarixi aradiate behavior is influenced by volatiles from both plants and Diaphorina citri nymphs,” J. Insects, vol. 10, no. 5, p. 141.
M. Sitepu, M. C. L. Tobing, and D. Bakti, “The role of refugia plants to the eggs yellow rice stem borer (Scipophaga interculans Walker) parasitoids parasitation rate,” J. PhysConf. Ser, vol. 1116, no. 2018, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1116/5/052064.
M. Sarjan, H. Haryanto, B. Supeno, and A. Jihadi, “Using The Refugia Plant as an Alternative Habitat for Predatory Insects On Potato Plants,” J. Biol. Trop., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 203–207, 2023, doi: 10.29303/jbt.v23i2.4426.
S. Dumalang, N. N. Wanta, and D. A. S. Turang, “Types Of Refugia That Effectively Preserve Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum In Control Plutella xylostella Cabbage Pests In Tomohon City,” J. Agroekoteknologi Terap., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 94–98, 2024, doi: 10.35791/jat.v5i1.54524.
R. L. Meagher, G. S. Nuessly, R. N. Nagoshi, and M. N. Hay-Roe, “Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats,” J. Biol. Control, vol. 95, pp. 66–72, doi: 10.1016/j/biocontrol.2016.01.006.
B. Shresta, D. L. Finke, and P. Jc, “The ‘botanical triad’: the presence of insectary plants enhances natural enemy abundance on trap crop plants in an organic cabbage agroecosystem,” J. Insect, vol. 10, no. 6.
M. Kenis, H. Plessis, J. Berg, B. mn, G. Goergen, and K. E. Kwadjo, “Telenomus remus, a candidate parasitoid for the biological control of Spodoptera frugiperda in Africa, is already present on the continent,” J. Insect, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1–10, doi: 10.3390/insects10040092.
A. Pomari-Fernandes, A. F. Bueno, S. A. Bortoli, and B. M. Favetti, “Dispersal capacity of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera:Platygastridae) in maize and soybean crop,” Biol Control, doi: 10.1016/j/biocontrol.2018.08.009.
A. Pomari-Fernandes, R. C. O. de F. B. Freitas, Adeney de Freitas Bueno, and A. O. Menezes, “Telenomus remus Nixon eg parasitization of three species Spodoptera under different temperatures,” Neotrop Entomol, vol. 42, pp. 399–406, doi: 10.1007/s13744-013-0138-0.
I. L. I. Putra and C. D. N. S. Wati, “Parasicity level of Telenomus sp. paracitoid against Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith eggs in the laboratory,” J. Nat. Scien Math. Res, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 73–77.
B. Sisay et al., “Spodoptera frugiperda infestations in East Africa,” J.MDPI, vol. 10, pp. 1–10.
J. R. P. Parra, A. Coelho, and Junior, “Applied biological control in Brazil: from laboratory assays to field application,” J. Insect Sci, vol. 19, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iev112.
F. Ferrer, “Biological control of agricultural pests in Venezuela Historical adhvievments of Servicio Biological (SERVBIO,” Rev. Ciencias Ambient., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 327–344, doi: 10.15359/rca.
B. M. Prasanna, J. E. Huesin, R. Eddy, and V. M. Peschke, “Fall armyworm in Africa: A guide for integreted pest management.” Mexico.
H. Goulet and J. T. Huber, Hymenoptera of the world: an identifiation guide to families. Ottawa, Ontario: Centre for land and Biological Resources Research.
Baehaki, “Rice stem borer and control technology.,” Iptek Tanam. Pangan, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2015.
A. Rauf, “Egg parasitization of the white rice stem borer, Scirpophaga innota (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), during an explosion in Karawang in eraly 1990s,” Bul. pests plant Dis., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–10.
C. J. Krebs, “Ecological metodology.” An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., New York, 1998.
R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie, “Statistical principles and procedures,” Edition, vol. 4.
S. C. Krejcek, C. Malouines, and S. Hartley, “Tri-trophic interactions and the minimal effect of larval microsite and plant attributes on parasitism of Sphenella fascigera (Diptera: Tephritidae),” New Zeal. J. Zool., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 85–93, 2015, doi: 10.1080/03014223.2015.1032985.
P. P. Asmoro, Dadang, Pudjianto, and I. W. Winasa, “Screening insectary refugia plants that increase the performance of diadegma semiclausum hellen (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) against diamondback moth larvae,” Biodiversitas, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 4254–4260, 2021, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d221016.
R. Mawaddah, B. T. Rahardjo, and G. Mudjiono, “Diversity of Ant Species (Hymenoptera: Formiciidae) in Flower Plants Combination on Ratoon Sugarcane,” Res. J. Life Sci., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2022, doi: 10.21776/ub.rjls.2022.009.01.4.
M. Hilker and N. E. Fatouros, “Plant responses to insect egg deposition,” Annu Revi Entomo, vol. 60, pp. 493–515.
I. W. Supartha, W. Susila, A. S. S. Agung, F. Mahaputra, K. W. Yudha, and P. A. Wiradana, “Damage characteristics and distribution patterns of invasive pest, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on maize crop in Bali, Indonesia,” J. Biodiv, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 3378–3389.
D. Horvat et al., “Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activity of major cereal crops,” Antioxidants, vol. 9, no. 527, pp. 1–12, doi: 10.3390/antiox9060527.
S. Rasmann, L. Pellissier, E. Defossez, H. Jactel, and G. Kunstler, “Climate-driven change in plant-insect interactions alon elevation gradients,” Funct Ecol, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 46–54.
B. V Ngowi, H. E. Z. Tonnang, F. Khamis, E. M. Mwangi, B. Nyambo, and P. N. Ndegwa, “Seasonal abundace of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutelliadae) and diversity of its parasitoids along altitudinal gradients of theeastern Afromontane,” Phytoparasitica, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 375–391.
M. L. M. Grande, P. Q. Ana, G. Jaciara, H. Rafael, M. UV, and F. B. Adeney, “Impact of environmental variabel on parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, Telenomus remus and Telenomus podisi,” Neotrop Entomol, doi: 10.1007/s13744-021-00874-2.
W. Y. Chen, M. Li, J. Wang, Z. Mao, and L., “Evaluating the potentiial of using Spodoptera litura eggs for mass-rearing Telenomus remus, a promising egg parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda,” J. Insects, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 12050384.
J. Alfred Daniel, K. Ramaraju, S. Mohan Kumar, P. Jeyaprakash, and N. Chitra, “Influence of Weather on the Parasitoid Catches in Three Rice Growing Agroclimatic Zones of Tamil Nadu,” Indian J. Entomol., vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2019, doi: 10.5958/0974-8172.2019.00032.4.
Y. L. Liao et al., “First report of Telenomus remus parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda and its field parasitism in southern China,” J. Hym, no. 73:95-102.
Z. Q. Qin et al., “Occurrence of Telenomus dignus (Gahan) on the Sugarcane Borers, Scirpophaga intacta Snellen and Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer in Guangxi Province, China,” Sugar Tech, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 725–729, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s12355-018-0612-4.
B. M. Pedroso, T. M. Silva, and L. D. B. Faria, “Dominant parasitoid species diminishes food web structural complexity and function,” J. Insect Coservation, vol. 25, pp. 671–682.
H. Du Plessis, M. L. Schlemmer, and J. Van den Berg, “The effect of temperature on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),” Insects, vol. 11, no. 4, 2020, doi: 10.3390/insects11040228.
R. Wang et al., “Potential distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in China and the major factors influencing distribution,” Glob. Ecol. Conserv., vol. 21, p. e00865, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00865.
L. B. D. Cruz, I. W. Supartha, and N. N. Darmiati, “Diversity and abundance of egg parasitoid populations associated with rice stem borrer pests yellow on rice planting in Tabanan Regency,” J. Agrotek Trop, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191–201.
G. A. Awaluddin and N. Agus, “Types and populations of white rice stem borer egg parasitoids at various growth phases of rice plants,” Res. Food Crop Agric., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 135–141, 2019.
M. Kishinevsky, T. Keasar, and A. Bar-Massada, “Parasitoid abundance on plants: effects of host abundance, plant species, and plant flowering state,” Arthropod. Plant. Interact., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s11829-016-9476-2.
Kementan, “Refugia as pest trap plants.” Indonesia, p. https://distan.bulelengkab.go.id/informasi/detail/, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://distan.bulelengkab.go.id/informasi/detail/